For his work, Mc Crone was awarded the American Chemical Society's Award in Analytical Chemistry in 2000.
The shroud, however, has many defenders who believe they have demonstrated that the cloth is not a forgery, dates from the time of Jesus, is of miraculous origin, etc. Forensic tests on the red stuff have identified it as red ocher and vermilion tempera paint.
Since the Sudarium is believed to have existed before the 8th century, according to Danin, there is "clear evidence that the shroud originated before the eighth century." The cloth is believed to have been in a chest of relics from at least the time of the Moorish invasion of Spain.
It is said to have been in the chest when it was opened in 1075.
It is claimed that there is type AB blood on the shroud. Blood has not been identified on the shroud directly, but it has been identified on sticky tape that was used to lift fibrils from the shroud. Other tests by Adler and Heller have identified it as blood.* If it is blood, it could be the blood of some 14th century person.
It could be the blood of someone wrapped in the shroud, or the blood of the creator of the shroud, or of anyone who has ever handled the shroud, or of anyone who handled the sticky tape.
Vermilion paint, made from mercuric sulphide, was then splashed onto the image's wrists, feet and body to represent blood." Mc Crone analyzed the shroud and found traces of chemicals that were used in "two common artist's pigments of the 14th century, red ochre and vermilion, with a collagen (gelatin) tempera binder" (Mc Crone 1998).
He makes his complete case that the shroud is a medieval painting in Judgment Day for the Shroud of Turin (March 1999).
The author claims that historical, iconographic, pathological, physical, and chemical evidence points to its inauthenticity.Avinoam Danin, a botanist from Hebrew University of Jerusalem claims he has identified pollen from the tumbleweed Gundelia tournefortii and a bean caper on the shroud.He claims this combination is found only around Jerusalem.The shroud is a 14th century painting, not a 2000-year-old cloth with Jesus's image.Mc Crone's theory is that "a male model was daubed with paint and wrapped in the sheet to create the shadowy figure of Jesus." The model was covered in red ochre, "a pigment found in earth and widely used in Italy during the Middle Ages, and pressed his forehead, cheekbones and other parts of his head and body on to the linen to create the image that exists today.