Graham Fuller has argued for a broader notion of Islamism as a form of identity politics, involving "support for [Muslim] identity, authenticity, broader regionalism, revivalism, [and] revitalization of the community." Some Islamist thinkers emphasize peaceful political processes.
Others, Sayyid Qutb in particular, called for violence, and his followers are generally considered Islamic extremists, although Qutb denounced the killing of innocents.—and thus is not a united movement.
The strength of Islamism draws from the strength of religiosity in general in the Muslim world.
Where other peoples may look to the physical or social sciences for answers in areas which their ancestors regarded as best left to scripture, in the Muslim world, religion has become more encompassing, not less, as "in the last few decades, it has been the fundamentalists who have increasingly represented the cutting edge" of Muslim culture.
Another major division within Islamism is between what Graham E.
Fuller has described as the fundamentalist "guardians of the tradition" (Salafis, such as those in the Wahhabi movement) and the "vanguard of change and Islamic reform" centered around the Muslim Brotherhood.
In the Middle East and Pakistan, religious discourse dominates societies, the airwaves, and thinking about the world.
Radical mosques have proliferated throughout Egypt. Book stores are dominated by works with religious themes ...